|Key Stage 1||How you can help|
|Pupils count, order, combine, increase and decrease quantities when solving problems in practical contexts. They read and write the numbers involved. When working with 2-D and 3-D shapes, pupils use mathematical language to describe properties and positions. They measure and order objects using direct comparison, and order events. Pupils sort objects and classify them, demonstrating the criterion they have used. They collect data to answer questions.||Use numbers at all opportunities in daily life; count stairs, cars, people. Do more than and less than. If cooking, let children help with weighing, measuring. Discuss shapes of things in house and shops (cereal boxes are cubes, jars are cylinders). Ask how many corners, edges, faces they have.|
|Pupils count sets of objects reliably, and use mental recall of addition and subtraction facts to 10. They begin to understand the place value of each digit in a number and use this to order numbers up to 100. They choose the appropriate operation when solving addition and subtraction problems. They use the knowledge that subtraction is the inverse of addition. They use mental calculation strategies to solve number problems involving money and measures. They recognise sequences of numbers, including odd and even numbers. Pupils use mathematical names for common 3-D and 2-D shapes and describe their properties, including numbers of faces, edges and vertices. They distinguish between straight and turning movements, recognise angle as a measurement of turn, and right angles in turns. They begin to use everyday non-standard and standard units to measure length and mass. Pupils sort objects and classify them using more than one criterion. When they have gathered information to answer a question or explore a situation, pupils record results in simple lists, tables, diagrams and block graphs, in order to communicate their findings.||Practise mental addition and subtraction facts to 10. Do it orally not on paper. Help them to write out numbers to 100. Do it in rows 0 to 9 then 10 to 19 then 20 to 29 etc. This helps to understand place value. Ask questions such as “If 5+3 is 8 what is 8-3?” If they don’t understand use objects (toys, buttons, coins) to help. Count in odds and evens and get them to do the same. Use the wide range of songs available to sing along to. Discuss the difference between 2D and 3D shapes and ask them to give mathematical names of various shapes when out shopping. Ask them to estimate and measure distances in the house (table width, room length, door width etc) Ask children to tell you the time (half and quarter hours)|
|Pupils show understanding of place value in numbers up to 1000 and use this to make approximations. They begin to use decimal notation, in the context of measures and money, and to recognise negative numbers in practical contexts such as temperature. Pupils use mental recall of addition and subtraction facts to 20 in solving problems involving larger numbers. They add and subtract numbers with two digits mentally and numbers with three digits using written methods. They use mental recall of the 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 multiplication tables and derive the associated division facts. They solve whole-number problems involving multiplication or division including those that give rise to remainders. They use simple fractions that are several parts of a whole and recognise when two simple fractions are equivalent. Pupils classify 3-D and 2-D shapes in various ways using mathematical properties such as reflective symmetry for 2-D shapes. They use non-standard units, standard metric units of length including finding perimeters, capacity and mass, and standard units of time, in a range of contexts. Pupils extract and interpret information presented in simple tables and lists. They construct charts and diagrams to communicate information they have gathered for a purpose, and they interpret information presented to them in this form.||
Discuss prices of items when shopping. Use these to do some adding. Use money to help understanding of decimals (10p is 0.1 of a pound, 1p is 0.01). Give them two 2-digit numbers to add or subtract. Have a thermometer in the house; this is especially useful when temperature drops below freezing to discuss negative numbers. Help them with learning their tables. Instant recall of times tables facts is a HUGE advantage in later stages of maths learning. Test them on knowledge of tables OUT OF ORDER e g 7 x 4 followed by 4x4, then 9x4. Use practical ideas to help understanding of fractions e g share an apple or orange. Cut in half then in quarters Show children how 2 quarters is the same as one half. Ask them to tell you the time accurately. Keep all activities oral not written
|Key Stage 2||How you can help|
|Pupils use their understanding of place value to mentally multiply and divide whole numbers by 10 or 100. When solving number problems, they use a range of mental methods of computation with the four operations, including mental recall of multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and quick derivation of corresponding division facts. They select efficient strategies for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. They recognise approximate proportions of a whole and use simple fractions and percentages to describe these. They begin to use simple formulae. Pupils use and make geometric 2-D and 3-D patterns, scale drawings and models in practical contexts. They reflect simple shapes in a mirror line. They choose and use appropriate units and tools, interpreting, with appropriate accuracy, numbers on a range of measuring instruments. They find areas of simple shapes expressed in words. Pupils generate and answer questions that require the collection of discrete data which they record using a frequency table. They understand and use an average and range to describe sets of data. Using technology where appropriate: they group data in equal class intervals if necessary, represent collected data in frequency diagrams and interpret such diagrams. They construct and interpret simple line graphs.||Ask children to multiply/divide numbers by 10 and 100. Also to add two 2 digit numbers. This can be done while in the car to pass time. Ask them to estimate fractions from different shapes e.g. circles and rectangles or of real things (e g. what fraction of mashed potato from pan is now on your plate? What fraction of petrol is left from a full tank? If out shopping can they work out half price, 20% off etc. Add prices of 2 items. Read dials and measures in real life; show them all dials on car dashboard and ask to interpret. Ask how long till their favourite program starts on TV. Help them to learn all tables to 10 x 10 and test their recall randomly. Also test knowledge of number pairs that make 100 e g 63 + ? = 100 and that make 1000 e g 245 + ? = 1000. Ask them to add three 2 digit numbers or two three digit numbers mentally.